Nationalism suffers from confusion both over the meaning of the term and over its role in the modern world. Its antecedents may be found in the fifteenth and sixteenth centuries, with the rise of the nation-state under dynastic rule, but its ideology and vitality are no older than the late eighteenth century, the period of the American and French revolutions.
Nationalism represents a political creed in which the people offer their supreme allegiance to a nation-state.
It underlies the cohesion of modern societies and legitimizes a nation's assertions of authority over the lives of its inhabitants. There is in this event a note of liberation of the nation from oppression, either internal or external.
As Hans Kohn pointed out Growth Of German Nationalism Essay"Nationalism is inconceivable without the ideas of popular sovereignty preceding.
But this is Growth Of German Nationalism Essay necessarily the totality of the nationalist experience. When the nation demands the supreme loyalty of its citizens, the freedom of the individual may be sacrificed to the welfare of the state. Go here this elevation of the state there is the concomitant denigration of the outsider and the temptation to advance the nation at the expense of other nations.
As nationalism evolved in the nineteenth century, it assumed the ugly forms of imperialism, racism, and totalitarianism; it helped to stimulate world wars in the twentieth century.
It is these pejorative qualities that have led some American critics of nationalism to separate the American experience from the nationalism of Europe. Paul Nagel, an intellectual historian at the University of Missourirefused even to use the term in dealing with American nationality. For him, "'Nationalism' regularly has implied a doctrine or a specific form of consciousness conveying superiority or prestige.
Despite disquieting links between manifest destiny and European imperialism, most American critics find a qualitative difference in American nationalism. One of the fundaments of nationalism is the sense of folk, of a kinship derived from a common ancestry. Where this bond is lacking or is of secondary importance, a common religion serves as a unifying force. Usually a people united in race or religion also have a clearly defined territory with which they are identified, either in the present or in the past.
None of these attributes fits American history. Although England was the primary supplier of settlers, colonial Americans were also fully conscious of their Scottish and German roots at the time of the Revolution. An attenuated Calvinist heritage was as close to common religion as could be found in the eighteenth century, and this was vitiated by the fact that where just click for source were established churches, they were click likely to be Anglican than Calvinist.
It was a secularized religious spirit that was found in America. A specific territorial claim evoking national emotions was lacking among a people for whom territorial concerns were equated with an expanding frontier. America was more an idea than a geographical entity. The "invention of America," as the Mexican historian Edmundo O'Gorman has happily phrased it, marks a major departure from the experience of more organically developed nations.
The mythic roots of Italian or Japanese peoples are nourished by a prehistory that tells of special strengths an Aeneas brought to Rome from Troy and special considerations conferred on Japan by virtue of divine descent.
It is difficult to locate these qualities in a nation whose beginnings followed the invention of the printing press in western Europe by little more than a generation.
The words and deeds of founders could be checked and countered, just as John Smith's tales about Virginia were examined by contemporaries who kept modern records. Granted that every nation is Growth Of German Nationalism Essay mixture of races with synoptic religious values, America is one of the very few nations the distinguishing features of which may be traced directly to the needs of other peoples at a particular period.
The courage to embark on an American adventure, as well as the Growth Of German Nationalism Essay and skills necessary to discover and settle the New World, stemmed from a Renaissance belief in the capacity of man to achieve a new life. Such a conception was beyond the grasp of the medieval mind. The Reformation's pursuit of individual salvation outside the claims of established religions provided a moral imperative to much of the colonizing experience. Above all, the potential existence of vast quantities of precious metals in the New World gave a powerful impetus to the discovery and exploitation of American resources.
American nationalism was touched by all these forces. The first problem, then, in defining American nationalism is to identify it. An automatic expression of nationalism did not accompany the establishment of the United States. The emotions of the American Revolution were attached to state rather than to nation, and the search for a substitute for a historic memory or a common church or a unifying ruling elite required forty years before it could bind the loyalties of Americans.
It was an issue that absorbed the energies of the founders of the new republic and achieved a tentative resolution only after the War of Growth Of German Nationalism Essay that time, the focus of nationalist sentiment was on the special conditions of liberty protected by a new and superior government that had no counterpart elsewhere.
The development of a national identity proceeded throughout the nineteenth century, and continued to be a preoccupation of Americans in the twentieth century.
The effort to find suitable symbols to display loyalty was a lengthy process. As late as the Civil War there was more than one design of the national flag. It was not until that the ritual for its display on buildings or on platforms was completed, and the pledge of allegiance was made obligatory in many schools only a generation earlier.
The nationalism and patriotism of European nations, particularly the Great Powers, were significant factors in the road to World War I. Nationalism and patriotism are inextricably linked. Conservatives err when they elevate ideology too far above culture. Sonderweg (German: [ˈzɔndɐˌveːk], "special path") identifies the theory in German historiography that considers the German-speaking lands or the country Germany. National Socialism (German: Nationalsozialismus), more commonly known as Nazism (/ ˈ n ɑː t s i. ɪ z əm, ˈ n æ t-/), is the ideology and set of practices. Get information, facts, and pictures about nationalism at cyprus4u.info Make research projects and school reports about nationalism easy with credible articles.
The insertion of "under God " in the pledge of allegiance was a product of the pieties of the post — World War II era. Even the national anthem, "The Star-Spangled Banner," was not so designated until The insecurity over identification of nationalism is equally apparent in the sensitivity over the meanings of "Americanism" and "un-Americanism.
A second, and overlapping, element in nationalism is the peculiar relationship between state and federal governments. The question had its roots in the making of the Constitution, as did the term "federal" used by its framers. It was a euphemism designed to secure support Growth Of German Nationalism Essay a new basic law that implied the supremacy of a strong central government.
An open affirmation of this purpose in would have meant the failure of the Constitutional Convention in a country where primary Growth Of German Nationalism Essay still belonged to the states and where the word "federal" suggested a fair sharing of power. The struggle between state and nation, begun with the failure of a genuine federal system under the Confederation, was a just click for source theme in American life for three-quarters of a century.
Although it was present in the Jeffersonian challenge to Alexander Hamilton in the s and in Federalist disaffection from the Jeffersonian conflict with England in the next decade and a half, its dominance over American life coincided with southern sectionalism, culminating in the Civil War. That conflict ended not only in the triumph of the North but also in the vesting of new mystical powers in the Union and the Constitution.
Nationalism after would always be equated with a nation, "one and indivisible," with the "unum" in "e pluribus unum" superior to the "pluribus. A third strand in American nationalism, which is also as old as the Republic, is the special destiny of America. The hand of Providence as well as of man is involved.
If America is a "new world," its rise must have a divine meaning; and that meaning was always translated into some form of sharing the blessings of liberty with less-favored peoples. The religious quality inherent in the image of a "chosen people" was enhanced by the secular opportunities open to Americans. Vast, empty, rich lands held insecurely by European imperialists seemed manifestly destined for American occupation.
Otto von Bismarck (1815–1898) / German Unification
Movement into Texas and California was a fulfillment of a destiny not only to occupy the entire continent but also to help the rest of humanity see how that occupation would spread the principles of free speech, free religion, self-government, and boundless economic opportunities that were denied to the Old World. Here was a sense of mission that sharpened in clashes with Britain or with Spainbut it was a mission that was susceptible to foreign influence. The unique character of a civilization serving as a beacon to others, a model to be copied, could be and was compromised by the change in status from a small, vulnerable republic to a continental empire with overseas ambitions.
The altruism of an earlier time was thoroughly mixed, at the end of the nineteenth century, with prevailing influences of social Darwinism and Anglo-Saxon racism. Most of Growth Of German Nationalism Essay elements making up America's self-image of a divinely favored nation still survive, even though the trauma of a great economic depression in the s, the burdens of world governance in the s, and increasing doubts over social injustice and corruption at home and exploitation abroad have had disillusioning effects upon the meaning of the American mission.
Yet with all these doubts, the connection between God's special favor and the American way of life remains part of nationalism. And, for all its flaws, the virtues associated with the record of American nationalism suggest distinctive qualities not found in other national experiences. The most difficult period to identify in the evolution of nationalism is the time of its inception.
The very name of America came comparatively late into the consciousness of the British colonies, and the first awareness of a separate destiny is a matter of continuing speculation. Boyd Shafer found an incipient national loyalty appearing as far back asduring King George's War. Richard Merritt, a Yale political scientist, employed quantitative techniques to determine that was the year when key colonial newspapers cited "America" more frequently than "British colonies" in their columns.
Although by the middle of the eighteenth century it was obvious that Americans were becoming something more than transplanted Englishmen, many future Growth Of German Nationalism Essay were quick to proclaim their British affiliations as the mother country triumphed over France in the French and Indian War. There was genuine pride in membership in a great British empire. As late asthe poet Philip Freneau was convinced that Britain could and should "rule our hearts again," if only the rights Growth Of German Nationalism Essay the American part of the empire were respected.
After the Revolution had shattered that empire, no automatic transfer of loyalty from London to the Confederation, with its seat in Philadelphia, took place. The differences between North and South, tidewater and piedmont, were potentially as deep as differences between Americans and Englishmen. Culture as well as geography distinguished the Bostonian from the Virginian, and the tidewater Virginian from the Scottish frontiersman of the Blue Ridge.
Some of the most fundamental characteristics of the American way of life — freedom from arbitrary government and freedom of speech and religion — were Virginian or Pennsylvanian as well as American. The America of could have remained as much an abstraction as Europe was then and now. The experience of Latin American revolutions a generation later could have been that of the former British colonies. The vulnerability of a young republic in a world of hostile monarchies provided a major incentive for the cultivation of an American identity.
The strength of nationalism was an inspiration to American statesmen aware of the temptations that quarreling American states offered to Europeans awaiting the demise of the American experiment. An anxious neighbor like Spain to the west and south, and an angry neighbor like Britain to the north, looked forward to exploiting the divisions among the former colonies.
Even the ally France observed American weakness with complacence, knowing that it would bind Americans to their Visit web page patron.
The anticipated failure of the republican regime made success all the more important to the Founders, and this success depended on a strong pride in their achievements. Richard Morris pointed out that an ideology of nationalism could be built on what Europeans regarded as intolerable infirmities: As Thomas Paine phrased it in his Crisis, the United States would be in a position "to make a world happy, to teach mankind the art of being so — to exhibit on the theatre of the universe a character hitherto unknown, and to have, as it were, Growth Of German Nationalism Essay new creation intrusted to our hands.
There John Thesis On Business Plan uses an important distinction, however, between pronouncing American superiority on such grounds and building a foundation to support it.
Poets, playwrights, and even lexicographers were as sensitive to the importance of building institutions to sustain American achievements as were the diplomats and statesmen. Noah Webster's labors on a dictionary were intended to establish an American language distinct from the English of the mother country. At one and the same time his dictionary would proclaim the differences between the two nations and provide a standard that could be used to deepen those differences in the future.
His work was a success, but not quite on the terms he had set. The American language was only partially freed from its inferiority complexes. Other intellectuals of this period harked back to classical antiquity to assert the American distinctiveness. The American republic was to be accepted, not as a replication of any contemporary European nation but as an improved reincarnation of ancient Greece and Rome. From language to architecture to political imagery, the classical period was invoked.
If Rome had its Aeneid to glorify its origins, the Connecticut poet Growth Of German Nationalism Essay Barlow was willing to offer his country The Columbiad, which attested to. A work so vast a second world required, By oceans bourn'd, from elder states retired; Where, uncontaminated, unconfined, Free contemplation might expand the mind, To form, fix, prove the well-adjusted plan And base and build the commonwealth of man.
Whatever its poetic merits, The Columbiad claimed a new world to be even more superior to the Old World than Rome was to its rivals. But, like Rome, the United States was prepared to grant to mankind something better in human relations than it had ever witnessed before.