There is no desire more natural than that of knowledge. We try all ways that can lead us to it; where reason is wanting, we therein employ experience. Reason has so many forms that we know not to which to take; experience has no fewer; the consequence we would draw from the comparison of events is unsure, by reason they are always unlike.
There is no quality so universal in this image of things as diversity and variety. Both the Greeks and the Latins and we, for the most express example of similitude, employ that of eggs; continue reading yet there have been men, particularly one at Delphos, who could distinguish marks of difference amongst eggs so well that he never mistook one for another, and having many hens, could tell which had laid it.
Dissimilitude intrudes itself of itself in our works; no art can arrive at perfect similitude: Resemblance does not so much make one as difference makes another. Nature has obliged herself to make nothing other that was not unlike. And yet I am not much pleased with his opinion, who thought by the multitude of laws to curb the authority of judges in cutting out for them their several parcels; he was not aware that there is as much liberty and latitude in the interpretation of laws as in their form; and they but fool themselves, who think to lessen and stop our disputes by recalling us to the express words of the Bible: We see how much he was mistaken, for we have more laws in France than all the rest of the world put together, and more than would be necessary for Edith Stein On Women Essays government of all the worlds of Epicurus:.
What have our legislators gained by culling out a hundred thousand particular cases, and by applying to these a hundred thousand laws? This number holds no manner of proportion with the infinite diversity of human actions; the multiplication of our inventions will never arrive at the variety of examples; add to these a hundred times as many more, it will still not happen that, of events to come, there shall one be found that, in this vast number of millions of events so chosen and recorded, shall so tally with any other one, and be so exactly coupled and matched with it that there will not remain some circumstance and diversity which will require a diverse judgment.
There is little relation betwixt our actions, which are in perpetual mutation, and fixed and immutable laws; the most to be desired are click to see more that are the most rare, the most simple and general; and I am even of opinion that we had better have none at all than to have them in so prodigious a number as we have.
Nature always gives them better and happier than those we Edith Stein On Women Essays ourselves; witness the picture of the Golden Age of the Poets and the state wherein we see nations live who have no other. Some there are, who for their only judge take the first passer-by that travels along their mountains, to determine their cause; and others who, on their market day, choose out some one amongst them upon the spot to decide their controversies.
What danger would there be that the wisest amongst us should so determine ours, according to occurrences and at sight, without obligation of example and consequence? For every foot its own shoe.
Whence does it come to pass that our common language, so easy for all other uses, becomes obscure and unintelligible in wills and contracts? As you Edith Stein On Women Essays children trying to bring a mass of quicksilver to a certain number of parts, the more they press and work it and endeavour to reduce it to their own will, the more they irritate the liberty of this generous metal; it evades their endeavour and sprinkles itself into so many separate bodies as frustrate all reckoning; so is it here, for in subdividing these subtilties we teach men to increase their doubts; they put us into a way of extending and diversifying difficulties, and lengthen and disperse them.
In sowing and retailing questions they make the Edith Stein On Women Essays fructify and increase in uncertainties and disputes, as the earth is made fertile by being crumbled and dug deep.
We doubted of Ulpian, and are still now more perplexed with Bartolus and Baldus. We should efface the trace of this innumerable diversity of opinions; not adorn ourselves with it, and fill posterity with crotchets. I know not what to say to it; but experience makes it manifest, that so many interpretations dissipate truth and break it.
Aristotle wrote to be understood; if he could not do this, much less will another that is not so good at it; and a third than he, who expressed his own thoughts.
We open the matter, and spill it in pouring out: I often find matter of doubt in things of which the commentary has disdained to take notice; I am most apt to stumble in an even country, like some horses that I have known, that make most trips in the smoothest way.
The hundredth commentator passes it on to the next, source more knotty and perplexed than he found it.
When were we ever agreed amongst ourselves: This is most apparent in the law; we give the authority of law to infinite doctors, infinite decrees, and as many interpretations; yet do we find any end of the need of interpretating? On the contrary, we darken and bury intelligence; we can no longer discover it, but at the mercy of so many fences and barriers. The water still does into water swill, Still continue reading same brook, but different water still.
There is more ado to interpret interpretations than to interpret things, and more books upon books than upon any other subject; we do nothing but comment upon one another. Every place swarms with commentaries; of authors there is great scarcity. Is it not the principal and most reputed knowledge of our later ages to understand the learned? Is it not the common and final end of all studies? Our opinions are grafted upon one another; the first serves as a stock to the second, the second to the third, and so forth; thus step by step we climb the ladder; whence it Edith Stein On Women Essays to pass that he who is mounted highest has often more honour than merit, for he is got up but an inch upon the shoulders Edith Stein On Women Essays the last, but one.
How often, and, peradventure, how foolishly, have I extended my book to make it speak of itself; foolishly, if for no other reason but this, that it should remind me of what I say of others who do the same: My own excuse is, that I ought in this to have more liberty than others, forasmuch as I write specifically of myself and of my writings, as I do of my other actions; that my theme turns upon itself; but I know not whether others will accept this excuse.
I observed in Germany that Luther has left as many divisions and disputes about the doubt of his opinions, and more, than he himself raised upon the Holy Scriptures. Our contest is verbal: I ask what nature is, what pleasure, circle, and substitution are? A stone is a body; but if a man should further urge: His Polyglot Dictionary became so famous, that Calepin became a common appellation for a lexicon].
We exchange one word for another, and often for one less understood.
I better know what man is than I know what Animal is, or Mortal, or Rational. As no event, no face, entirely resembles another, so do they not entirely differ: If our faces were not alike, we could not distinguish man from beast; if they were not unlike, we could not distinguish visit web page man from another; all things hold by some similitude; every example halts, and the relation which is drawn from experience is always faulty and imperfect.
Comparisons are ever-coupled at one end or other: What we find to be favour and severity in justice—and we find so much of them both, that I know not whether the medium is as often met with are sickly and unjust members of the very body and essence of justice.
What could I have said to these people? This happened in my time: The judges, just in the nick, are informed by the officers of an inferior court hard by, that they have some men in custody, who have directly confessed the murder, and made an indubitable discovery of all the particulars of the fact.
Yet it was gravely deliberated whether or not they ought to suspend the execution of the sentence already passed upon the first accused: Philip, or some other, provided against a like inconvenience after this manner.
He had condemned a man in a great fine towards another by an absolute judgment. The truth some time after being discovered, he found that he had passed an unjust sentence. On one side was the reason of the cause; on the other side, the reason of the judicial forms: But he had to Edith Stein On Women Essays with a reparable affair; my men were irreparably hanged.
How many condemnations have I seen more criminal than the Edith Stein On Women Essays themselves? I am in the same case that Alcibiades was, that I will never, if I can help it, Edith Stein On Women Essays myself into the hands of a man who may determine as to my head, where my life and Edith Stein On Women Essays shall more depend upon the skill and diligence of my attorney than on my own innocence.
I would venture myself with such justice as would take notice of my good deeds, as well as my ill; where I had as much to hope as to fear: Our justice presents to us but one hand, and that the left hand, too; let him be who he may, he shall be sure to come off with loss. In China, of which kingdom the government and arts, without commerce with or knowledge of ours, surpass our examples in several excellent features, and of which the history teaches me how much greater and more various the world is than either the ancients or we have been able to penetrate, the officers deputed by the prince to visit the state of his provinces, as they punish those who behave themselves ill in their charge, so do they liberally reward those who have conducted themselves better than the common sort, and beyond the necessity of their duty; these there present themselves, not only to be approved but to get; not simply to be paid, but to have a present made to them.
No judge, thank God, has ever yet spoken to me in the quality of a judge, upon any account whatever, whether my own or that of a third party, whether criminal or civil; nor no prison has ever received me, not even to walk there.
Imagination renders the very outside of a jail displeasing to me; I am so enamoured of liberty, that should I be interdicted the access to some corner of the Indies, I should live a little less at my ease; and whilst I can find earth or air open elsewhere, I shall never lurk in any place where I must hide myself. If those under which I live should shake a finger at me by way of menace, I would immediately go seek out others, let them be where they would.
All my little prudence in the civil wars wherein we are now engaged is employed that they may not hinder my liberty of going and coming.
They are often made by fools, still oftener by men who, out of hatred to equality, fail in equity, but always by men, vain and irresolute authors. There is nothing so much, nor so grossly, nor so ordinarily Edith Stein On Women Essays, as the laws. Whoever obeys them because they are just, does not justly obey them as he ought.
Our French laws, by their irregularity and deformity, lend, in some sort, a helping hand to the disorder and corruption that all manifest in their dispensation and execution: What fruit then soever we may extract from experience, that will little advantage our institution, which we draw from foreign examples, if we make so little profit of that we have of our own, which is more familiar to us, and, doubtless, sufficient to instruct us in that whereof we have need.
Quis deus hanc mundi temperet arte domum: Qua venit exoriens, qua deficit: Whence rises the monthly moon, whither wanes she? In this universality, I suffer myself to be ignorantly and negligently led by the general law of the world: The goodness and capacity of the governor ought absolutely to discharge us of all care of the government: The philosophers; with great reason, send us back to the rules of nature; but they have nothing to do with so sublime a knowledge; they falsify them, and present us her face painted with too high and too adulterate a complexion, whence spring so many different pictures of so uniform a subject.
As she has given us feet to walk with, Edith Stein On Women Essays has she given us prudence to guide us in life: Oh, what a soft, easy, and wholesome pillow is ignorance and incuriosity, whereon to repose a well-ordered head!
I had rather understand myself well in myself, than in Cicero. Of the experience I have of myself, I find enough to make me wise, if I were continue reading a good scholar: The life of Caesar has no greater example for us than our own: Let us but listen to it; we apply to ourselves all whereof we have principal need; whoever shall call to memory how many and many times he has been mistaken in his own judgment, is he not a great fool if he does not ever after suspect it?
Edith Stein (religious name Teresa Benedicta a Cruce OCD; also known as St. Teresa Benedicta of the Cross; 12 October – 9 August ), was a German Jewish. Edith Stein: The Untold Story of the Philosopher and Mystic Who Lost Her Life in the Death Camps of Auschwitz [Waltraud Herbstrith] on cyprus4u.info *FREE* shipping on. Quotidiana (kwo•ti•de•A•na) N. 1. The land of everyday, commonplace things; 2. The online compendium of public-domain essays. Featuring. With over volumes to date, the authoritative editions in the Library of America series average 1, pages in length, feature cloth covers, sewn bindings, and. Index to Primary Authors: Adams, Henry. The Education of Henry Adams. Aeschylus. Agamemnon. The Libation-Bearers.
When I find myself convinced, by the reason of another, of a false opinion, I do not so much learn what he has said to me that is new and Edith Stein On Women Essays particular ignorance—that would be no great acquisition—as, in general, I learn my own debility and the treachery of my understanding, whence I extract the reformation of the whole mass. In all my other errors I do the same, and find from this rule great utility to life; I regard not the species and individual as a stone that I have stumbled at; I learn to suspect my steps throughout, and am careful to place them right.
To learn that a man has said or done a foolish thing is nothing: If every one would pry into the effects and circumstances of the passions that sway him, as I have done into those which I am most subject to, he would see them coming, and would a little break their impetuosity and career; they do not always seize us on a sudden; there is threatening and degrees. Fluctus uti primo coepit cum albescere vento, Paulatim sese tollit mare, et altius undas Erigit, inde imo consurgit ad aethera fundo.
Judgment holds in me a magisterial seat; at least it carefully endeavours to make Edith Stein On Women Essays so: Plato says also, that prudence is no other thing than the execution of this ordinance; and Socrates minutely verifies it in Xenophon.
The difficulties and obscurity are not discerned in any science but by those who are got into it; for a certain degree of intelligence is required to be able to know that a man knows not, and we must push against a door to know whether it be bolted against us or no: I, who profess nothing else, therein find so infinite a depth and variety, that all the fruit I have reaped from my learning serves only to make me sensible how much I have to learn.
To my weakness, so often confessed, I owe the propension I have to modesty, to the obedience of belief prescribed me, to a constant coldness and moderation of click to see more, and a hatred of that troublesome and wrangling arrogance, wholly believing and trusting in itself, the capital enemy of discipline and truth. Nihil est turpius, quam cognitioni et perceptions assertionem approbationemque praecurrere.
Edith Stein Essays on Woman by Edith Stein
Aristarchus said that anciently there were scarce read article sages to be found in the world, and in his time scarce so many fools: Affirmation and obstinacy are express signs of want of wit. You would say he had had some new soul and vigour of understanding infused into him since, and that it happened to him, as to that ancient son of the earth, who took fresh courage and vigour by his fall.
That long attention that I employ in considering myself, also fits rile to judge tolerably enough of others; and there are few Edith Stein On Women Essays whereof I speak better and with better excuse.